FAIR principles for scientific data management

To be Findable

  • (meta)data are assigned a globally unique and eternally persistent identifier
  • data are described with rich metadata
  • (meta)data are registered or indexed in a searchable resource
  • metadata specify the data identifier

To be Accessible

  • (meta)data are retrievable by their identifier using a standardized communications protocol
  • the protocol is open, free, and universally implementable
  • the protocol allows for an authentication and authorization procedure, where necessary
  • metadata are accessible, even when the data are no longer available

To be Interoperable

  • (meta)data use a formal, accessible, shared, and broadly applicable language for knowledge representation
  • (meta)data use vocabularies that follow FAIR principles
  • (meta)data include qualified references to other (meta)data

To be Reusable

  • meta(data) have a plurality of accurate and relevant attributes
  • (meta)data are released with a clear and accessible data usage license
  • (meta)data are associated with their provenance
  • (meta)data meet domain-relevant community standards


Read more about the FAIR Guiding Principles for scientific data management and stewardship.